Thursday, October 29, 2015

Thinq - A Linq Experiment

Thinq - A Linq Experiment

   View/Download the source code from the project's GitHub

   So I wrote a program, just an experiment, where I was making a range class using IEnumerables (C#), and each element doesn't have to increment by one, but any amount. so I was creating ranges like 7 to 10 million, increment by 7, so upon enumeration it would yield multiples of 7. This is also called arithmetic progression.

   Then I started combining different multiples with query operators like Where operator or Intersect like IEnumerable result = multiples7.Intersect(multiples13.MoveNext()), essentially creating a function that keeps only those numbers that are multiples of both 7 and 13, starting with the least common multiple.

   So I began testing. After some playing, I decided to take the first 7 primes, and find any common multiples to them between 1 and 10 million. Much to my surprise, it found all the common multiples of the first 7 prime numbers under 10 million (there are only two of them, 4849845 & 9699690), and it did it in 500 milliseconds on some very modest hardware (1 core, 2.16GHz, 4GB ram).

   I bumped up the ceiling to 50 million and I got an OutOfMemoryException because the IEnumerable holds on to every value it gets from the function MoveNext(). I threw in some metrics and discovered that it took about 3 seconds and some 32-million, 64-bit integers for my computer to declare 'out of memory'.

   Well, at least it was fast, even if it did eat up all my ram in 3 seconds, it was still promising. 

   The solution was to create an IEnumerator that was aware of the arithmetic sequences that constrained the results set. When MoveNext() is called repeatedly during enumeration, I avoid the infinite memory requirement by restricting the result set returned from MoveNext(); it returns the next whole number that is divisible by every arithmetic sequence's 'common difference', or increment value. In this way, you have created a enumerable sequence that is the _intersection_ of all of the sequences.

   The enumerator is prevented from running to infinity by obeying two limits: A maximum numeric value (cardinal) that GetNext() will return to ("results less than 50 million") and a maximum quantity of results (ordinal) that GetNext() yields ("the one millionth result").    If either of these limits are exceeded, the while loop will fail to evaluate to true. It is very common for my processor-intensive, long running or 'mathy' applications to employ a temporal limit (maximum time-to-live) or support cancellation, but this little experiment has been so performant that I have been able to get by without one.

   So what kind of improvement did we get out of our custom enumerable? I can now find all the common factors for the first 8 prime numbers up to 1 billion in 25 seconds! I was impressed; the application used to max out around 50 million and run out of memory, and now it can investigate to one billion in a reasonable amount of time and the memory it uses is not much more than the 8 or so integers in the result set. 1 billion, however seems to be the sweet spot for my single 2.13 GHz laptop. I ran the same 8 primes to 2 billion and it took 1 minute, 12 seconds:

TIME ELAPSED: 01:12.38
LCM[3,5,7,11,13,17,19,23] (max 2,000,000,000)



Tuesday, October 6, 2015

Mixed Radix Numeral System class and Counter

Mixed Radix Calculator

   My 'Mixed Radix Calculator' creates a counting system of radices (plural of radix), such as base 12 or mixed radices such as Minutes/Hours/Days/Years: 365:24:60:60. I choose the left side to be the most significant side. This is merely a personal preference, and my MixedRadixSystem class supports displaying both alignments.

   Of course you dont have to choose a mixed radix numeral system, you can count in an N-base numeral system, such as base 7 or a more familiar base 16. Another feature lies in my RadixNumeral class. Each numeral, or place value, supports having its own dictionary of symbols.

Screenshot of Mixed Radix Calculator
      (Project released under Creative Commons)

-  52:7:24:60:60:1000  -

  A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers.

  The most familiar one is of course the decimal numeral system. This is a 10-base numbering system. Computers use a binary numeral system. The base is sometimes called the radix or scale.

  Not all numbering systems have just one base. Take for example, how we currently divide time: There are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, 24 hours in a day, and 365 days in a year. This is called a mixed radix numeral system, and one might express the above mixed radix system like: 365:24:60:60.

  I haven't found a lot of use cases for it yet, but it is interesting. I originally built this because I wanted to experiment with numeral systems that uses increasing consecutive prime numbers for each radix, as well as experiment with some off-bases, such as base 3 or base 7.

  In a single base, say base 7, then 'round numbers' with only one place value having a 1 and the rest having zeros, such as 1:0:0:0:0 (in base 7), such numbers are powers of 7, and ever other number except for the 1's place value is a multiple of 7.

  A mixed radix numeral system can represent a polynomial, and possibly provide for a simpler way to visualize and reason about them.

  Yet another possible use is to make a numeral system with a base that is larger than and co-prime to some other target number (say 256) to make a bijective map from every value in a byte to some other value exactly once by repeatedly adding the value of the co-prime, modulus 256. This can appear rather random (or sometimes not at all) but the mapping is easily determined given the co-prime. I have talked about this notion before on my blog

  If you like this project you would probably like my project EquationFinder, it finds equations given constraints